Andre Andhara

Apakah Tacit dan Explicit Knowledge itu?

Pernahkah Anda mengalami kesulitan untuk membuat orang lain mengerti, padahal hal tersebut menurut kita adalah sangat sederhana? Atau pernahkan Anda merasa kebingungan untuk mengerti sebuah informasi mengenai sesuatu hal padalah menurut orang yang menjelaskan itu adalah hal yang sangat mudah? Jika jawabannya Ya, berarti berarti Anda memahami bahwa sebenarnya ada tantangan tersendiri dalam mentransfer sebuah pengetahuan atau knowledge.

Pernahkah Anda mengalami kesulitan untuk membuat orang lain mengerti, padahal hal tersebut menurut kita adalah sangat sederhana? Atau pernahkan Anda merasa kebingungan untuk mengerti sebuah informasi mengenai sesuatu hal padalah menurut orang yang menjelaskan itu adalah hal yang sangat mudah? Jika jawabannya Ya, berarti berarti Anda memahami bahwa sebenarnya ada tantangan tersendiri dalam mentransfer sebuah pengetahuan atau knowledge.

Saya pernah menghadiri sebuah pelatihan di Jakarta yang pembukaannya sangat menarik, yaitu sang pembicara atau narasumber memberikan kita sebuah permainan (game) yang dimainkan oleh dua orang berpasang-pasangan. Kedua orang tadi diminta untuk berpegangan tangan dan salah satu nya diberikan seutas tali dan tantangannya adalah bagaimana tali tersebut dapat pindah ke tangan orang lain (pasangannya) tanpa melepas pegangan tangan. Para peserta pada awalnya mencoba dengan segala upaya dan tidak ada yang berhasil. Lalu Sang pembicara memberikan caranya dengan mempraktekan satu demi satu langkah-langkahnya. Alangkah terkesima nya kita para peserta ternyata caranya tidak begitu sulit.
       
Setelah itu, peserta yang telah diajari tadi diminta membagi pengetahuannya kepada para peserta lain. Tantangannya adalah, harus tertulis, tidak boleh diperagakan. Para peserta mencoba untuk menuliskan cara-cara tadi melalui tulisan dengan bahasa mereka masing-masing. Ada yang panjang dan ada yang singkat. Setelah itu kami diminta memberikan tanggapan, apakah tulisan tadi dapat dimengert atau tidak. Sebelumnya kami diminta juga untuk menempatkan diri sebagai orang awam (yang belum terinformasi mengenai cara nya). Di sanalah kami sadar, bahwa ternyata, tidaklah mudah untuk kita dalam mentransfer sebuah pengetahuan atau informasi kepada orang lain, apalagi terbatas hanya dengan tulisan.

Apa yang diperagakan oleh narasumber tadi adalah salah satu contoh dari apa yang kita namakan tacit knowledge. Tacit Knowledge adalah pengetahuan yang belum didokumentasikan atau pengetahuan yang masih berada di dalam ‘isi kepala’ seseorang. Pengetahuan ini berisikan ‘insight’, pengalaman-pengalaman, pemikiran-pemikiran atau pembelajaran yang diterima dari pengalaman sehari-hari. Tacit knowledge juga dapat dikategorikan sebagai pengetahuan yang didapat secara langsung dari sumbernya. Contoh lain dari Tacit Knowledge adalah pengetahuan yang diperoleh karyawan dari hasil sharing knowledge, mentoring / coaching, atau pengetahuan yang disampaikan pada saat rapat atau pelatihan. Arahan atau pentunjuk dari Atasan juga termasuk di dalamnya. Karena keterbatasan dalam komunikasi verbal atau linguistik manusia, maka tacit knowledge seringkali tidak mudah untuk didokumentasikan.

Dalam bukunya “The Tacit Dimension” Michael Polanyi (1966) menuliskan dua dimensi dari tacit knowledge, yaitu:
a. Dimensi teknis, atau pengetahuan prosedural ( sering disebut ‘know how’). Pengetahuan ini adalah knowledge yang mengetahui bagaimana caranya sesuatu proses terjadi.

b. Dimensi Kognitif (cognitive dimension) yaitu dimensi pengetahuan yang lebih dalam, seperti keyakinan, prinsip, nilai-nilai, schemata dan mental model. Secara tidak sadar dimensi ini sebenarnya sudah terdapat di dalam diri kita. Kita memiliki prinsip-prinsip hidup dan nilai-nilai yang ditanamkan sejak kecil di lingkungan keluarga dan lingkungan sosial serta kita juga memiliki mental model yang berbeda-beda yang nantinya akan mempengaruhi kita dalam memahami sesuatu.  Ketika suatu knowledge sulit untuk diartikulasi, cognitive dimension of tacit knowledge membentuk cara kita dalam memahami sesuatu.

Explicit Knowledge

Pada saat kita membeli sebuah gadget atau handphone (ponsel) baru, biasanya kita langsung membuka buku manual untuk kita baca isinya. Di dalam buku manual tersebut akan kita dapatkan informasi bagaimana mengoperasikan ponsel atau petunjuk bagaimana menggunakan fitur-fitur tertentu. Contoh lain adalah ketika membaca booklet mengenai keselamatan penumpang di atas pesawat. Buku manual ponsel dan booklet tadi tadi adalah salah satu contoh explicit knowledge. Explicit Knowledge adalah pengetahuan yang secara mudah dapat diartikulasi, dikode-kan, diakses dan diverbalkan. Pengetahuan ini bersifat tersirat atau sudah terdokumentasi. Karena sudah tertulis, sangat mudah bagi kita untuk mempelajarinya. Contoh lain pengetahuan explicit yang ada di perusahaan adalah SOP (standard operation procedure), job description, product knowledge atau peraturan-peraturan perusahaan lain.

Perbandingan antara explicit knowledge dan tacit knowledge adalah sebagai berikut:

NO Explicit Knowledge Tacit Knowledge
1 Tangible atau berwujud. Intangible atau tidak berwujud
2 Berwujud objek-objek fisik, seperti dokumen, database, dan lain-lain Objeknya adalah (knowledge) apa yang ada di kepala seseorang
3 Konteksnya bersifat independen Konteksnya mempengaruhi makna
4 Dengan mudah dapat dibagikan Dibagikan hanya melalui sesi sharing, meeting, diskusi, tanya jawab dan lain-lain
5 Dapat dengan mudah untuk produksi kembali Tidak dapat di replikasi secara identik
6 Mudah diverifikasi dan umumnya kuantitatif Umumnya kualitatif
7 Stabil, tidak berubahsepanjang waktu Berkembang melalui pengalaman pribadi
8 Bisa dimiliki oleh perusahaan Tidak bisa dimiliki oleh perusahaan
9 Objective, rasional, teknikal Subjective, cognitive, experential learning
10 Kontennya tetap Konten tercipta secara dinamis

 

Bentuk lain dari kodifikasi pengetahuan adalah know-what, know-why, know-how dan know-who, secara garis besar dapat didefiniskan sebagai berikut:

Know-what, hal ini berkaitan dengan fakta-fakta. Secara tidak langsung know-what sebenarnya merupakan informasi. Misalnya, apakah ibu kota Indonesia? Zat-zat apa sajakah yang terkandung dalam buah pepaya? Berapa jumlah penduduk Indonesia? Pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut mengiring kita pada jenis pengetahuan know-what.

Know-why, pada level ini kita memerlukan jawaban yang lebih ilmiah atau scientific. Kita harus dapat menjawab fakta ilmiah kenapa sesuatu terjadi sedemikian rupa.

Know-how adalah kemampuan atau skills dalam mengerjakan sesuatu. Sifatnya melekat pada individu tertentu tentang bagaimana sesuatu berjalan atau beroperasi

Know-who adalah pengetahuan tentang siapa individu yang menguasai pengetahuan tertentu atau siapa individu yang bisa mengerjakan sesuatu. Jenis pengetahuan ini memerlukan kemampuan dalam mengorganisir atau memetakan siapa-siapa saja individu yang “ahli” dalam bidang tertentu. Akhir-akhir ini pengetahuan “know-who” menjadi sangat penting, khususnya dalam era “sharing-economy”

Kedua jenis pengetahuan know-what dan know-why di atas dapat diperoleh dengan membaca buku, menghadiri seminar atau kegiatan lain yang sifatnya “mencari” pengetahuan yang sudah terkodifikasi dengan baik. Sebenarnya kedua pengetahuan diatas dapat digolongkan kedalam “explicit knowledge” seperti telah kita singgung sebelumnya. Sedangkan know-how dan know-who merupakan pengetahuan yang lebih bersifat “tacit”. Hal ini diperoleh melalui proses pembelajaran dan pengalaman sehari-hari sehingga sangat sulit untuk dapat dikodifikasi

Demikian introduction mengenai tacit dan explicit knowledge.  Semoga bermanfaat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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